Passover

Laws Regarding the Month of Nissan

Parashat Hachodesh

Two Sifrei Torah are taken out on Shabbos Parashas Hachodesh. In the first we read Vayakhel-Pekudei thus finishing Sefer Shemos. After the last passuk is read the minhag is that everyone present stands and says “Chazak chazak venischazek.” In the second Sefer Torah we read in Parashas Bo from
“Hachodesh Hazeh Lachem,” and the Haftorah is from Sefer Yechezkel chapter 45. The minhag is to say the “Yotzer” in Mussaf.

Dinnim and Minhagim in Nissan

Throughout Nissan we do not say Tachanun, nor the Yehi Ratzon tefillos after Kriyas Hatorah on Mondays and Thursdays. However, we do say Kel Erech Apayim (before Kriyas Hatorah) and Lamenatzayach.

The minhag is not to eat Matzah from Rosh Chodesh until seder night.

Birkat Ha-ilanot

Someone who sees flowering fruit trees during Nissan should make the following brachah:

ברוך אתה ה' א' מלך העולם שלא חיסר בעולמו כלום וברא בו בריות טובות להנות בהם בני אדם”

The minhag is to say this brachah when seeing at least two fruit trees (Kaf Hachaim 226:2). One should ideally refrain from making this brachah on Shabbos or Yom Tov (Kaf Hachaim 226:4).

Amirat Hanassi

From Rosh Chodesh until the 12th of Nissan the minhag is to say the Parashas Hakravas Korbanos (in Parashas Nasso) of the Nessi’im. On each day we recite the korban of the Nassi brought on that particular date. On the 13th of Nissan we read Parashas Beha’alosecha until “כן עשה את המנורה.” (Mishnah Berurah 429:8) Everyone should recite it himself from the siddur, and afterwards there is a Yehi Ratzon to be recited for each particular tribe’s Nassi, as printed in the siddurim. (Some have the minhag to read the korban of each Nassi from a Sefer Torah, but without a brachah.)

Ma’ot Chittin – Kimcha dePischa

There is a minhag from the times of the gemara to buy wheat and give it out to the poor and needy for Pesach. (Rema, Orach Chaim 429:1) The amount that should be given is not set – everyone should give what he can afford to give. Nowadays, since everyone bakes or buys his own matzos, one must give the poor and needy money with which to buy matzos and all the supplies needed for Pesach. Those who avoid giving Kimcha dePischa are transgressing (Mishnah Berurah 429:6), and inhabitants of a place can force everyone to give. (Mishnah Berurah 429:3)

The minhag of our Rabbis is to bake matzos on the 5th of Nissan, which is the Yahrzeit of the “Ohev Yisroel” of Apter. 

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